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 موضوع بالانجليزي عن مدينة رام الله والبيرة

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عدد الرسائل : 213
تاريخ التسجيل : 23/07/2007

مُساهمةموضوع: موضوع بالانجليزي عن مدينة رام الله والبيرة   الثلاثاء يوليو 24, 2007 11:12 am

Tourism In Ramallah and Al Beireh Governorate

Ramallah and its twin, Al Beireh locate on a chain of Palestine central mountains. They are (16)kms from Jerusalem northward. The two cities are 860 meters above sea-level, and have a fine climate which makes them a center of tourist attraction . Al Beireh which is older and bigger than Ramallah, enjoys a strategic situation on the cross – roads of the main trades .


Thus, it is the link between the “Ghour” and the Palestinian coast plain with the mountain road connecting north Palestine with its south, as well as the important location of the city.


Settlement in Beireh results from the available water from its different springs, particularly, the known spring of Al Beireh called “Al Aiyn”. It lies on the main road of Jerusalem-Nablus. Due to its importance, the population of al Beireh built, near it, a khan with its remains, which are still clearly observed in the old town, and it dated back to the crusaders time .


They built two mosques near Al Khan, in the early Islamic period. They are currently, in use; the first is known as Al Omary Mosque, close to the sacred family church in the middle of the Old town, and Al Ein Mosque locating on the street of Jerusalem-Nablus, near the present municipality building. The center of the city had changed from time to time. The oldest site which the population of Al Beireh dwelled, is Al Irsal area. Then the center was transferred to “Tal Al Nasbeh”, then “Ein Om al Sharayet” them to old town center for the time being . Now the city borders are expanding to include all these areas. There are many towns called Al Beireh in Palestine. One lies north of Beisan, another lies in Hebron area, the third is near Safad, the fourth is in Beersheva area, but the Beireh of Jerusalem is the most important, the biggest and the most famous of all of them.


It is believed that the name Al Beireh was derived from the Cana’anite origin, “Beicron” which means (Al A abar) attributed to the abundant springs spreading in the city. The most important is the spring of Al Beireh and the other many, as, spring of Al Kasa’a and spring of Om Al Sharayet, spring of Jinan, spring of the king and others. Perhaps, the name was from Arami origin (Beirta) meaning the citadel or the fort attributed to the monument of Tal Al Nasbeh.


History of al Beireh City :
The Cana’anite history of Al Beireh dated back to the thirty fifth century B.C (About the year 3500B.C). From that time, through five thousand years, Al Beireh was overpopulated. Al Beireh was mentioned in the old Testament, more than once, in the name “Beirout” in the tale of the prophet Dawood, the brother of the prophet Moses “ peace upon them”, and the tale of Beni Israel occupation of Palestine at the time of Yousha’ Ben Noun. But the city was not sacred for the Jews. Therefore, it was not annexed to the Jewish Kingdoms which were founded in the late Iron Age.



Al Beireh was known at the Roman time, with “Bireih”. It became important in this period particularly, at the beginning of the Christian time. It was mentioned that “The virgin Mary” and her fiancé, Yousef Al Najjar had lost Christ in it , when he was a child of (12) years old, on their way back to Nazarite from Jerusalem . On this place, a Bizante church was constructed. Its remains are still , today , apparent in the middle of the old city, and it is called the church of the sacred family church.


After Islamic conquest, Al Beireh played a prominent role on the arena of events in Palestine. It was believed that Omar Ben Al Khattab stayed in it on his way from Al Madina Al Monawwara to Jerusalem to receive the keys of Jerusalem from the Bizantes. In 1195, in the place ,it was believed that Omar prayed in it , a mosque was constructed, known as Al Omary Mosque. It is still, in use, today. It is close to the Bizante church and it was renovated in 1995.


During the Crusades period, Al Beireh was an important village because it is near Jerusalem, specially when the Crusaders occupied it in 1099A.C. It became a center for the Islamic resistance against the Crusaders.


Following its occupation, the Crusaders endowed it with other (21) Palestinian villages from Jerusalem area, to the church of Sepulcher. The city, with its Bizante church which was renovated and cleaned lately, was a center for the nights of Saint Youhanna, who came from England.


When Salaheddin Al Ayyouby had liberated Palestine, he took over Al Beireh and destroyed the Crusade settlement in it, in 1187 A.C. It was believed that the number of the Crusaders who surrendered to him in Al Beireh amounted to (50000) prisoners .
Thus the city was re-Arabised. In the Ottoman age, 1517-1918A.C, Al Beireh was an important administrative political and a district center which the Ottoman governor lived in . There was an army from its people. It played a role in defening Akko during the Crusade campaign late in the 18th century A.C.



Al Beireh was annexed to Ramallah district during the British mandate and it lasted from 1919 to 1994, when the PNA arrived in 1994, Al Beireh with its twin, Ramallah have become a center of Ramallah and Al Beireh governorate.


History of Ramallah City :
The word Ramalleh means “God wants” or “God disposes”. It was given this name after the middle centuries, though Ramallah was a sub-village within the land of Al Beireh village. Neither Ramallah nor Al Beireh was mentioned in the old history till the Roman time. Ramallah seemed to be (during the Islamic Arab conquest) just a sub- village, then it began to grow. During the Crusade Compaigns, Ramallah was a small Crusade agricultural colony called (Ramalie) by Crusaders. It seems that the standing tower in Al Tireh area, is the remains of a crusade building in that period.



The popular history associates the origin of novel Ramallah with the immigration of two Arab families, namely; a Moslem family and a Christian family from “Al Shobak” in the south of Jordan, late in the fifteenth century A.C.



The Christian family Rashed Al Haddadin, stayed in Ramallah which was a sub-village for a family in Al Beireh. The second family, Hussein Tannash stayed in Al Beireh and associated with its families. The tale of the origin of Ramallah said; that among the tribes of “Al Karak” there was a Christian Arab tribe called, Al Haddadin. Rashed Al Haddadin the head of the tribe, had a dispute with the Sheikh of Beni Omar tribe, and overpowered Al Karak because he refused to marry his danghter to the son of the Moslem tribe Sheikh. So, Al Haddadin had to depart covertly at night.



He, with his subjects, came to the outskirts of Al Beireh. They liked the sub-village Ramallah , in its forests and fire-woods which are necessary for the blacksmith business they were practicing. So, they bought it from its owners, “Al Ghazawnch” the original population of Al Beireh.


Thus, Al Haddadin tribe was destined to build this village which most Ramallah population, at present, belong to.
The Ottoman archives referred that the number of Ramallah population , at the beginning of the Ottoman period-definitely in (1592) A.C- amounted to (225) people distributed among (45) families. But, in1838, the American traveler, Idward Robinson, visited Ramallah and mentioned that the number of Ramallah population was about (800-900) people. This number rose up to (1000) people in 1912, then to (2292) people in 1922 A.C. according to the first statistic run by the mandate government.



In 1944 A.C the number of population was (2920) people, while in Beireh, the neighboring city, the number amounted to 6000 due to (1945) statistics. After 1948 war, a big number of Palestinians left their villages and cities on the Palestine coast, and refuged to the two cities. So, their number of population multiplied many times. Those refugees, who constitute the majority of both cities, today, have particularly distinguished both cities from the other Palestinian cities in the West Bank and Gaza Strip. Now, the two cities are, as an uptodate open city which has the possibilities unavailable in any other Palestinian city. Both cities constitute an attractive factor for many Palestinians because work opportunities are available and they are near Jerusalem which, recently make them under abnormal excessive overpopulation.


The latest statistics of the central apparatus of Palestinian statistics, pointed out that the total population of Ramallah and Al Beireh governorte amounted to (205448) people; (70098) urban people; (122181) rural people and (13169) people, the number of the camps population.


Economical life In Both Cities :
Until the end of the past century, the population of Ramallah and Al Beireh relied in living on cultivation when the first movement of expatriation, particularly, to the USA has started.



Today, there are more than twenty thousand citizens from Ramallah and Al Beireh live in USA. Those represent an essential income resource for the country. The two cities have become to an important financial administrative and cultural center in Palestine during the previous years. They are the main centers for tens of the banks and the insurance companies.


There exists the abode of the PNA president, Yaser Arafat, the governor, a number of ministries and the Palestinian government departments like; Ministry of transport and public works, Ministries of high Education, Agriculture and Information .


There are Palestine studies and the transmission station of T.V. and the broadcast, the central statistic department…etc, in addition to a number of the high education institutes, like, faculty of nursing of Al Quds University a branch of Al Quds open University, UNRWA and government teachers institutes and hundreds of NGOs. Manual crafts have spread in the city which are considered as a result of the tourist activity , like, East wooden curio craft, folklore embrodaries and tobacco cigarettes. Tourism has been activated and influenced by the movement and flourishing of trade in Ramallah which leads to inaugurate restaurants and hotels as well as rarities and embroideries. The return of expatriates has contributed in activating this important sector whether at their presence in summer holidays or with their capitals which they have invested in this activity . There are about (27) restaurants, (7) swimming pools, (18) travel and tourist bureaus and (10) hotels.


The Most Important Tourist and Monumental Places In The Governorate :
1. Khan Allaban, lies southeast Allaban village. It is (15)kms north of Ramallah . It is an Islamic Arab Landmark and it was an Ottoman terminal for the trade caravans.



2. Tal Siloun, is (15)km north of Ramallah, north of Tormosa’ya village. It is , like a hill, a Cana’anite city and an Islamic Arab Landmark.


3. Shaqba Cave : It is (20)kms from west of Ramallah on the side of Al Natouf Valley. It is important because it was ancient and there is a landmark symbolizing Al Natoufian civilization.
4. Village of Ras Karkar : It is about (10)kms west north or the west of Ramallah . It is an Islamic- Arab Landmark, (Ottoman Village).



5. Ein Qinya : It is about (5)kms west north of the west of Ramallah . It is an Islamic Arab Landmark – a traditional Ottoman Mamluke village.


6. Ein Samya/ Zhahr al Marzabana : It lies between Jordan valley and Kofor Malek village about (20) kms north-west Ramallah. It is an Islamic Arab Landmark. There are, a cemetery, watermill, houses dated back to early Bronze Age, and Mid –Bronze Age. Some of them dated back to Iron Age then to Roman period.


7. Tal Al Tal (Aiy) : It is about (5)kms north Jerusalem , (Cool kms east Ramallah. It is like a hill and a Cana’anite town.
8. Betteen : It is (5)kms north-east Al Beireh. It is a Cana’anite town and an Islamic Arab Landmark.



9. Ridana Sub-village : It lies at the north of Al Beireh frontiers and east of Ramallah frontiers. This Landmark was inhabited in early Bronze Age and the Iron Age as well as the Bizante period.


10. Tal Al Nasbeh : It is (15)kms north Jerusalem at the south frontiers of Al Beireh. It is a Cana’anite city.


References :
- Palestine Tourist Guide-West Bank and Gaza Strip- the Palestine Establishment for Cultural Exchange.
- Features of Cultural and Civilized Heritage Threatened in West Bank – Emergency plan for safeguarding the Natural Resources-Ministry of Planning and International Cooperation-Directorate of Urban and Rural Planning –February 1999.
- The central Apparatus for the Palestinian Statistics 1999, General Enumeration of Population, houses and installations-1997, Final Conclusions, Population Report- West Bank (Chapter2), Ramallah- Palestine.
- State Information Service – Special Tourism Researches- Data Base Bank – Gaza – Palestine.


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